Why were native Americans so primitive?

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    • #63190
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Why were native Americans so primitive?

    • #63191
      Anonymous
      Guest

      because wypipo be rayciss n shieet be keepin us down now gibsmedat cracka

    • #63192
      Anonymous
      Guest

      They were all white :/

    • #63193
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Tenochtitlan was more advanced than Madrid, they just didn’t have a couple things the Europeans had.

      • #63196
        Anonymous
        Guest

        I’m talking North America. The Incas and aztecs were pretty advanced but aside from a few semi advanced settlements North American natives had literally nothing. Where are their empires? Even Africa did better

        • #63200
          Anonymous
          Guest
        • #63204
          Anonymous
          Guest

          because necessity builds the man, amerindians from the north had everything they ever wanted at the reach of their hands and didn’t need to build an advanced civilization in order to survive, human evolution and advancements always come out of necesity, I must have to add that different races have different nesessities in which case caucasians are the race with the biggest amount of necessities because who knows? gods chosen people maybe they are truly the apex of human evolution

        • #63208
          Anonymous
          Guest

          I found this book had some interesting ideas in it about the north American societies outside of Mexico area. The author argues that what appeared to the Europeans as completely untamed wilderness was actually a highly cultivated environment that supported huge populations. But by the time the Europeans actually arrive in these areas, the cities along the Mississippi for example are already completely depopulated due to the spread of disease. There is basically one written account of some of these cities and their activities before the system collapsed.

          • #63211
            Anonymous
            Guest

            Isn’t that the same cope they used for abbos?

            • #63212
              Anonymous
              Guest

              I don’t know anything about that, I find it interesting though, the sort of lost societies of north America that we only get vague clues about. Since they were so devastated before anyone could really record what they were like.

              • #63215
                Anonymous
                Guest

                we already know native americans were masters of agriculture, and it is obvious that they had their own traditions, medicines, music, culture, but that doesn’t change the fact that in exchange they were iron age societies at best, literally a thousand years behind europe

                • #63217
                  Anonymous
                  Guest

                  Well and there were quite a few settlements as well. Some really organized societies. And to describe societies as ‘ahead’ or behind’ is pretty reductive don’t you think? Societies are far too complex to try and reduce them to one word, and it defeats the whole purpose of learning about this if you are going to try to turn human history in ahead or behind.

                  • #63219
                    Anonymous
                    Guest

                    This is cope.

                    • #63221
                      Anonymous
                      Guest

                      Cope for what? Having an interest in history?

                  • #63220
                    Anonymous
                    Guest

                    This. All culture and society boils down to a group of humans and their ecology. What you consider more “advanced” technology is just humans doing their best to adapt as a group to their environment. The indigenous people of the americas were highly adapted by this metric.

              • #63235
                Anonymous
                Guest

                It’s so sad we’ll never see the real North American indigenous landscape, before all sorts of plant and animal life from the old world came and proliferated and transformed the ecosystems.

            • #63213
              Anonymous
              Guest

              is the same cope they use for subsaharian africans

        • #63209
          Anonymous
          Guest

          The SW had the hohokam who had a system of irrigation and canals and the region had multiple trade routes and cliff dwellers with fortifications built into the cliffs but I guess when it comes down to it, you have to remember that the native americans were only on the continent for 13,000 years as of the traditional thought up to 33,000 years depending on if people died out. Given the existence of the Short Faced Bear, I doubt if people were here in the Americas more than 13,000 years ago that they had enough surplus to do fuckall. At the end of the day it is about trade and the sharing of ideas as well as the horse, the ox, the camel. North America had jack shit in the way of beasts of burden to allow for surplus and specialization.

      • #63197
        Anonymous
        Guest

        in terms or arquitecture maybe, in technologic advancement, not even close, ameeindian civilizations were closer to iron age or even bronze age civilizations

        • #63236
          Anonymous
          Guest

          In some aspects. In other aspects they had Europeans pretty well beat. Too bad none of those related to warfare.

      • #63225
        Anonymous
        Guest

        No.

        Pyramids and straw huts don’t compare to castles and cathedrals.

        • #63226
          Anonymous
          Guest

          tell that to the Spaniards that said it, not him.

        • #63227
          Anonymous
          Guest

          I would wager the thatched huts of Madrid were comparable to the straw huts of Tenochtitlan.

          • #63228
            Anonymous
            Guest

            Even the Roman Empire had straw huts, but the fact of the matter is, castles and cathedrals require more complex engineering than pyramids.

            • #63234
              Anonymous
              Guest

              It always so weird to me to look at history in this fashion. I guess depending on the cathedral that would probably be true, but these things also took centuries to build. And I’m not sure what would be better about something that involves more engineering. A tank has more complex engineering than a cathedral but I would enjoy a cathedral much more than a tank.

      • #63238
        Anonymous
        Guest

        >Tenochtitlan was more advanced then Madrid
        ‘Madrid’ was one of the smallest european capitals at the time
        Tenochtitlan had a population of 200’000 [high estimate]. By that point Paris was at 225’000 and Constantinople between 400’000-660’000
        Apparently they had 1bajillion aqueducts and had 1billion years of superior tech but couldn’t compete in terms of food production with post-dark age Europe

    • #63194
      Anonymous
      Guest

      if they were why do crakkkas bitch and moan about solutreans n shiet?

    • #63195
      Chief Wahoo
      Guest

      Go home, White man, Go home. Y’all are Trespassing.

      Chief Wahoo

      • #63206
        Anonymous
        Guest

        Ummm no spic, whites were here first

        • #63210
          Anonymous
          Guest

          Does anyone have the version of this meme where instead of some vikang it was the cheddar man?

    • #63198
      Anonymous
      Guest

      No domesticable animals.

      • #63199
        Anonymous
        Guest

        Because they hunted them all to extinction

      • #63205
        Anonymous
        Guest

        >No domesticable animals.

    • #63201
      Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka
      Guest

      >Go home, White man, Go home. Y’all are Trespassing.
      >Chief Wahoo

      Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka

    • #63202
      Anonymous
      Guest

      They settled down last. By the time the Asians of Eurasia settled down in Americas, other civilizations were already in full swing.

      Another factor is a lack of technologically similar societies in close proximity like we saw in old world. Egypt>Mesopotamia>Indus Valley>China, you could legit travel through all of them as a trader, and it played a giant role in terms of innovations on pretty much all arenas of lives back then. What did Meso-Americans have? Most of the advanced – relatively and compared to the simple tribes – were too far apart to get this shit going in a meaningful way.

      Lack of cattle you could argue played a role.

      Geography was also less favorable for new world civilizations compared to old world. You could make a case that river valleys of what is now United States, was a perfect place to create a second Mesopotamia, but for some reason they never capitalized on those, and went further down into what is now todays Mexico.

      TL:DR – settled down last, which caused them to be behind by 1k years, lacked a meaningful network where you could exchange civilizational knowledge in similar fashion to old world line of Egypt-Mesopotamia-Indus Valley-China.

      • #63207
        Anonymous
        Guest

        this is scrotebrained, by the time the greek civilization was flourishing the mayan civilization was doing the same, the city of Caral is as old as all the other cities in the old world, but for some reason instead of advancing further they collapsed and started over again

    • #63203
      Anonymous
      Guest

      They had complex states comparable with those of classical antiquity. The Inca had impressive megalithic architecture, logistics, and a possible lost writing system woke af on knots tied in yarn. Smallpox killed most of them, and then Europeans were very kind to the survivors. What remnants exist are the scrotebrained bastard children of European conquerors and the scattered survivors of an apocalypse.
      If you’re thinking of more northerly peoples living on marginal land without suitable crops for agriculture, well their societies could only get so complex without the agricultural productivity needed to maintain cities. They weren’t completely primitive though; the Inuit hunting system (kayak, harpoons, seal bladder floats., etc…) was enough to sustain them well in the most difficult environment in the world.

    • #63214
      Anonymous
      Guest

      >no iron
      >no wheel

    • #63216
      Two Knife
      Guest

      >Go home, White man, Go home. Y’all are Trespassing.
      >Chief Wahoo
      >Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7PQj-NHp83A

      Two Knife

      • #63218
        Anonymous
        Guest

        begone vile wiccan
        G

    • #63222
      Anonymous
      Guest
      • #63229
        Anonymous
        Guest

        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marines%27_Hymn

        Masons built the Viceroyalty of New Spain

        Racism

        Masons built the Halls of Montezuma

        • #63232
          Anonymous
          Guest
          • #63233
            Anonymous
            Guest

            Nin hokeh bi-kheh a-na-ih-la
            Ta-al-tso-go na-he-seel-kai
            Nih-bi-kah-gi do tah kah-gi
            Ta-al-tso-go en-da-de-pah
            Tsi-di-da-an-ne ne-tay-yah
            Ay be nihe hozeen
            Washindon be Akalh Bi-kosi-la
            Ji-lengo ba-hozhon

            Ni-he da-na-ah-taj ihla
            Yel khol-go e-e-ah
            Day-ne tal-al-tso go enta-she-jah
            Tal-tso-go entas-se-pah
            Ha-kaz dineh-ih be-hay-jah
            Ado ta aokhek-ash-shen
            Do ni-din-da-hi ol-yeh
            Washindon be Akalh-bi Khos

            Hozo-go nay-yeltay to
            A-na-oh bi-keh de-dlihn
            Ni-hi-keh di-dlini ta-etin
            Yeh-wol-ye hi-he a-din
            Sila-go-tsoi do chah-lakai
            Ya-ansh-go das dez e e
            Washindon be Akalh-bi Kosi la
            Hozo-g-kay-ha-tehn

      • #63230
        Anonymous
        Guest
    • #63223
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Much more isolation than Eurasians

    • #63224
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Racism

    • #63231
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Technology is iterative and woke af on the circumstances of the inventors. Many native Americans had wheels, they were just pointless without other inventions they either hadn’t invented because there was no need for them, or they’d gone in a different direction.
      Plus, you can be less advanced in some areas and ahead in others.
      Sure, even the most advanced cultures in the field in the Americas were quite primitive when it came to, say, metallurgy, chemistry and engineering but basically all of the Americas had mastered companion farming and we’re still freaking that shit up today.

    • #63237
      Anonymous
      Guest

      why not?

    • #63239
      Anonymous
      Guest

      So primitive compare to what?

    • #63240
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Assuming you mean people north of the Aztecs:

      > no beasts of burden
      > no livestock
      > no mountable animals
      > almost zero crops
      > no irrigation
      > no metalsmithing
      > if you didn’t live in the Great Plains or Sierra Nevada, the land was infertile

    • #97195
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Why were Native Americans completely incapable of building advanced civilizations?

    • #97196
      Anonymous
      Guest

      constant invasions from the north kept them from ever adopting a sedentary lifestyle for too long.

    • #97197
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Native Mississippi civilization is kino

      • #97209
        Anonymous
        Guest

        Well, there is no single umbrella reason for all natives, but I’ll go over a few.
        Alexis de Tocqueville noted in Democracy in America that during his travels he would often speak to native Americans about how they saw the future of the continent. He said that many of them were horrified of the future, because the thought of being forced to perform agricultural work wasn’t a life they saw as worth living. They saw civilized life as effeminate, and thought that men should do no work other than hunting fishing and fighting. Even though most of them seemed to know that the white men would overtake their civilization eventually they were determined to hold out as long as they could living life the way they thought it was meant to be lived.
        Now that is what he said of the Plains natives. He then made a point that the natives COULD be civilized by looking at the Cherokee. The Cherokee before being deported by Andrew Jackson had begun to form their own state, military, began farming, and even created a writing system for their language. Now, I’ll admit that the creation of the writing system was done by a half-white native, but regardless many who learned to write with it were full native. Who knows what could’ve happened if the Cherokee weren’t deported, but they were certainly on their way to civilizing themselves. So in that sense "because you wouldn’t let them" was the answer. Prior to the arrival of europeans they had no animals to pull their ploughs.
        With that aside, I’ll now point you towards the Mississippi Valley civilization
        And of course the Mayans and the Inca. The Aztecs were just scrotes who usurped someone else’s civilization.

        • #97224
          Anonymous
          Guest

          >The Aztecs were just scrotes who usurped someone else’s civilization.
          How exactly? They didn’t "usurp" anyone’s civilization, they built their own city-state from scratch after assimilating into the local sedentary society, most of whom where nahuas who were also originally nomads who assimilated into the civilization of the local oto-manguean speakers and who unlike the mexica, actually did usurp the rulership of some cities instead of just building their own.

      • #97256
        Anonymous
        Guest

        that’s Kincaid Mounds, a Mississippian site located at the southern tip of present-day Illinois, along the Ohio River. The site had at least 11 substructure platform mounds (it ranks fifth among known sites of this period for the number of such structures), and 8 other monuments. It is 140 miles from Cahokia, the major center of Mississippian culture in North America.

        A large central plaza, constructed by filling and leveling, was created at the center of the community; it is surrounded by the major mounds, one of which is almost 500 feet (150 m) long. Although none of Kincaid’s earthworks rivals the size of Monks Mound at Cahokia, the largest is very big by Mississippian standards and ranks 12th in size among all known Mississippian mounds.

        Remains of large buildings atop the main mounds seemed to indicate temples or council houses.

    • #97198
      Anonymous
      Guest

      because you poopyholes never let them what the fuck kind of question is that

      • #97200
        Anonymous
        Guest

        they were way behind on agriculture, mesoamericans probably would have killed them all in the time it would take for them to get out of the stone age

        • #97231
          Anonymous
          Guest

          >way behind on agriculture
          nope
          the north american natives had extensive farmlands
          the problem is that the epidemics specially devastated them to the point that when the english colonists arrived they could only see forests and as such believed the natives lived as hunter gatherers and took care of the land

          • #97237
            Anonymous
            Guest

            >extensive farmlands
            If by extensive you mean the immediate vicinity of their huts, sure

            • #97240
              Anonymous
              Guest

              nope, you are just scrotebrained anon

              • #97241
                Anonymous
                Guest

                The average farm size was about half an acre, which for city-tards is about 3 lots

                • #97243
                  Anonymous
                  Guest

                  >average farm size was about half an acre
                  any source on that? or did you just pulled it out of you ass as i suspect

                  • #97245
                    Anonymous
                    Guest

                    >Average garden sizes for historic Native American groups who did not have plows was .59 acre (.24 ha), a value that is smaller than what many archaeologists have probably envisioned. From fields that were .59 acre (.24 ha), the edible portion of yields that could have been expected would have provided less than 20 percent of families’ annual caloric needs
                    >When social or political mechanisms existed or developed that stimulated intensification through expanded garden size, perhaps up to 3.43 acres (1.39 ha), the larger family harvests would have allowed a greater reliance on maize for subsistence purposes. Through time, such a situation may have permitted one nuclear family household, or group of related households, to consistently accumulate a larger surplus (or surround themselves with people who were indebted to them) that could be manipulated for political ends

      • #97203
        Anonymous
        Guest

        >have over 10,000 years to develop a civilization more advanced than Sumer
        >fail and blame Europeans for putting an end to your primitive ways

    • #97199
      Anonymous
      Guest

      They realized wage slavery only exists in civilization.

    • #97201
      Anonymous
      Guest

      maybe there was no selective pressure to that direction

    • #97204
      Anonymous
      Guest

      While they had a small percentage of Basal Eurasian Ancestry, specifically Anatolian, evidenced by mtDNA X, it was not enough to continue post-Neolithic or even Neolithic farming societies once all of the G2a males (the male partner of mtDNA X) died off. These G2a males were the ones that the Mesoamericans made legends about and explains the X mtDNA in the Americas not the silly Solutrean hypothesis.

    • #97205
      Anonymous
      Guest

      They were simply too lazy to tame the buffalo and so stupid that they kept using tobacco as medicine for centuries.

      • #97206
        Anonymous
        Guest

        They also had horses but ate them out of existence instead of domesticating them.

        • #97219
          Anonymous
          Guest

          Early hunters finished off what remained, but it is unlikely hunting was the only reason. Horses were (probably) on their way out in North America due to habitat/climate change even before humans showed up. An additional theory is that various viruses or parasites (carried by mammmals besides humans) also crossed the land bridge played their role. Tasmanian devils are a modern example of this. They get face cancer from an exotic bacteria not native to Australia.

          Frankly, mass extinctions following human settlement is a trend that has occurred on every single landmass humans have ever come to.

          BTW, camels are also native to North America. But they too were already almost nearly extinct in North America when humans showed up.

      • #97218
        Anonymous
        Guest

        Depends what you mean by advanced, but a lot of it was climate related. There was fairly sedentary agricultural groups up to the Great Lakes. On the west coast, they were accomplished sea-faring mariners (though without sails, so not very far generally).

        In general, although the populations of pre-contact indigenous groups were higher than you might imagine, north of the Mississippi basin, they just never got too large.

        Bison are not easily domesticated, unlike the aurochs.

        And actually tobacco, depsite being addictive, is a very effective stimulant (like caffeine). Nicotine patches or gum are fairly ‘harmless’, apart from the addiction. The tabacco commonly used as you know it was first cultivated in the Caribbean islands and only spread wider after European colonization.

        Continental indigenous used nicotiana rustica, which is 3-4 times stronger than "common" tobacco. It is a very good antiseptic. It has pain-relieving (like aspirin) effects and is mildly anti-depressent. It’s rather bad for pregnant or nursing women, but so is alcohol (in fact, alcohol is worse).

        N. rustica at high doses is just about psychoactive (though you will be rolling on the floor with headache and nausea if you’re not used to it). Most indigenous groups did not sit around smoking all day, but smoked this strong tobacco only during "special ceremonies", where they’d puff and pass a few times. Various groups had various rules about it. Some (rarely) allowed anyone at certain times, some only men, some only during special situations. And in occasional usage like this, it’s actually not that harmful.

    • #97208
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Because they were content not to, same reason that advanced civilizations never developed in Africa, Australia/Oceania, and most of SE Asia.

      Resources were plentiful. Life was (relatively) easy.

      The intense competition and drive to succeed never really affected the Americas outside of MesoAmerica because there was enough space and resources that conflict became ritualized and with formal rules, not a life or death struggle like in Europe and Asia.

      Adversity breeds strength, and in human society population overgrowth and lack of resources produce the greatest adversity, and thus the greatest strength.

      • #97211
        Anonymous
        Guest

        >life expectancy is 30
        >high mortality in childbirth
        >ooga booga medicine
        >no plumbing or electrify

        Inb4 muh anarcho primitivism

        • #97215
          Anonymous
          Guest

          >muh life expectancy
          when will you scrotebrains learn what an average is?

        • #97238
          Anonymous
          Guest

          >NOOOOOOOO I NEEEEED TO LIVE FOREVEEVR AAAAAAHHHHH, NOT MY MEDICINERINO!!!!!! HURRRRY UP AND JJJJJAAAAAABBBBB MMMEEEEE!!!!!!

      • #97216
        Anonymous
        Guest

        >advanced civilizations never developed in Africa

      • #97255
        Anonymous
        Guest

        Advanced thought has never entered your brain.

    • #97210
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Depends on what you mean by advanced. Cherokee, Iroquois, and Pueblo peoples were all fairly advanced. All three got conquered, which doesn’t mean they stopped advanced insomuch as they stopped existing as independent states.

      For the Plains Indians, they got addicted to horses and the nomadic lifestyle, which was so fragile just running railroad tracks through the enormous plains put terminal strain on their way of life. Even if there had been no Indian Wars the Plains Indians woukd have either had to transform or die out.

      • #97213
        Anonymous
        Guest

        > railroad tracks through the enormous plains put terminal strain on their way of life
        because white people would shoot bison herds on the trains for fun

        • #97221
          Anonymous
          Guest

          fun fact: bison herds exploded from the 1600s due to collapse of human predators (indigenous) and in some areas, wolves being run off. The massive herds of the 1800s were (probably) not "natural" or sustainable long-term. Though certainly they are today much lower than was "natural" too. Much of their habitat has been replaced by corn or wheat monoculture.

          That we have obliterated most of the natural prairie landscapes in North America is a real damn shame. Absolutely nothing is more comfy or nature kino than tallgrass prairie in full bloom with a thunderstorm in the distance.

    • #97214
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Why were Africans incapable of building advanced civilizations

    • #97220
      Anonymous
      Guest

      on the east coast of North Carolina was this Powhatan village of Secoton c.1585, by English colonial governor John White of England’s second Roanoke Colony (aka the Lost Colony because the fate of the approximately the 112–121 English colonists remains unknown). The Secotan nation were the group that the Roanoke colonists had the most contacts with, which may explain why so many of their towns are located on White’s map. Although many of these towns were relatively small and the Secotan were not the largest or strongest tribe in the region, they did control a large amount of territory.

      • #97223
        Anonymous
        Guest

        >Roanoke Colony (aka the Lost Colony because the fate of the approximately the 112–121 English colonists remains unknown)
        Most probably starved, or being weakened, died of diseases. Some conflict with indigenous is probable, too. It is also theorized (woke af on some scant evidence) that some survivors simply joined the indigenous groups and melted in. This was not at all unusual in the first few hundred years of European contact. Many (but not all) indigenous groups were open to "immigants" so to say. Of course, it could be deadly for them (pathogens).

    • #97222
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Threads like this shit up the board. On one hand you have /poo/ spam. On the other you have r*dditors giving obvious bait (you)s.

      It is one thing to discuss the inferiority and superiority of civilizations and cultures which you can’t discuss anywhere else, it is another to just spam the same shit over and over and over. I swear I saw threads exactly like this just with a few words changed a year ago.

      The fact they could build cities like this without iron or even bronze is an interesting topic. Some technology seems easier to discover than others if you have the resources and other technology seems more the result of chance discoveries. It is a subject crucial for understanding the progress of civilization and perhaps with implications for modern R&D. Of course there is no point discussing it in depth here.

      • #97247
        Anonymous
        Guest

        There’s no way to get a thread going without bait these days.

    • #97225
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Cahokia was directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri, located in a strategic position near the confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois Rivers.

      It had a population of 20,000 at its peak, with more people living in outlying farming villages that supplied the main urban center.. At the apex of its population, Cahokia exceeded contemporaneous London, which at that time was approximately 14,000–18,000. Cahokia was larger than any subsequent city in the United States until the 1780s

      The elaborately planned community, woodhenge, mounds, and burials reveal a complex and sophisticated society. Its highly planned ceremonial plazas sited around the mounds with homes for thousands connected by laid out pathways and courtyards suggest the location served as a central religious pilgrimage city

      It maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south, trading in such exotic items as copper, quartz, and scungilli. Trade goods from Pennsylvania, the Gulf Coast and Lake Superior have been excavated at Cahokia, and Cahokian pottery and tools have been found in Minnesota

      Today, it is one of the 24 UNESCO World Heritage Sites within the United States.

      • #97230
        Anonymous
        Guest

        I remember reading that there is some archeological evidence which could suggest Mesoamerican (Aztec or similar) founders of Cahokia, or at least, an early elite core of Mesoamericans. Or, that some locals had travelled to Mesoamerica and brought ideas back. The mound and plazas are reminiscint.

        It’s not so implausible as one might think, as we know for sure that they were linked by trade networks at the time.

      • #97259
        Anonymous
        Guest

        >Cahokia exceeded contemporaneous London, which at that time was approximately 14,000–18,000.
        You don’t specify a time frame you mug.

    • #97226
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Because they were cut off from the old world trade. Every civilisation cut off from it did not evolve with it.
      It’s actually not easy to invent the wheel and the wagon or the idea of writing on your own. That’s why it’s only been done independently once or twice.

    • #97228
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Why didn’t you?

    • #97232
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Not a lot of trees in the desert. Concise to just life in tents.

    • #97233
      Anonymous
      Guest

      New Mexico’s Chaco Canyon was the center of a sophisticated culture that erected what were the most massive buildings on the continent, until the rise of skyscrapers built from steel girders in the late 1800s.

      >it was the ceremonial, trade and administrative hub of a network of neighboring communities. Those communities were connected by an extensive network of roads and an irrigation system

      >In 2017, DNA analysis of remains suggested that the settlement may have been founded and ruled over a period of more than 300 years by dynastic elite that controlled the ritual practices at Pueblo Bonito, the 600-room structure that was the settlement’s most important building.

      >Builders in Chaco Canyon developed sophisticated stone masonry construction techniques that allowed them to erect 150 multi-story structures, some as tall as five to six stories in height, with hundreds of rooms.

      • #97242
        Anonymous
        Guest

        >Chacoans quarried sandstone blocks and hauled timber from great distances, assembling fifteen major complexes that remained the largest buildings ever built in North America until the 19th century

        >Many Chacoan buildings may have been aligned to capture the solar and lunar cycles,[5] requiring generations of astronomical observations and centuries of skillfully coordinated construction.

        Today, it is one of the 24 UNESCO World Heritage Sites within the United States.

        The central portion of the canyon contains the largest Chacoan complexes. The most studied is Pueblo Bonito. Covering almost 2 acres (0.81 ha) and comprising at least 650 rooms, the structure was four stories high.

        The scale of the complex, upon completion, rivaled that of the Colosseum.

        Chetro Ketl, located near Pueblo Bonito, bears the typical ‘D’-shape of many other central complexes. It has 450–550 rooms, and took the wood of 5,000 trees and 50 million stone blocks to complete

        Kin Kletso ("Yellow House") was a medium-sized complex located 0.5 miles (800 m) west of Pueblo Bonito. It contains 55 rooms, four ground-floor kivas, and a two-story cylindrical tower that may have functioned as a kiva or religious center.

        Pueblo Alto is a great house of 89 rooms located on a mesa top near the middle of Chaco Canyon, 0.6 miles (1 km) from Pueblo Bonito. The community was the center of a bead- and turquoise-processing industry that influenced the development of all villages in the canyon

        Hungo Pavi: Initial probes revealed 72 ground-level rooms, with structures reaching four stories in height

        Nearby is Weritos Dam, a massive earthen structure that provided domestic water. The dam worked by retaining stormwater runoff in a reservoir.

        Deeper in the canyon, Una Vida comprises at least two stories and 124 rooms,

    • #97234
      Anonymous
      Guest

      They didn’t have horses, mans real best friend. Fuck dogs.

    • #97236
      Anonymous
      Guest

      >I’m Moctezuma now, everyone!

    • #97239
      Anonymous
      Guest

      I was going to explain why you’re wrong, but just say kys.

    • #97244
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Taos Pueblo multi-storied residential complex of reddish-brown adobe. It was probably built between 1000 and 1450 A.D. Located about 1 mile (1.6 km) north of the modern city of Taos, New Mexico, USA.

    • #97246
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Mesa Verde is Spanish for “green table” and is the largest archaeological preserve in the US, protecting some 4,500 sites. Nearly 600 of those sites are cliff dwellings: villages built into the giant alcoves of the mesa walls.

      Mesa Verde is not an isolated island of archaeology floating in a vast wilderness. The communities of Mesa Verde were part of a densely populated regional society of tens of thousands of people spread throughout the American southwest. They had trade contacts reaching from the Pacific Ocean to the Appalachian Mountains and from southern Canada deep into modern Mexico.

      These Ancestral Puebloans lived a rich, highly developed and complex lifestyle. Their abundance allowed them to create art forms that Mark Varien, executive vice-president of research at Crow Canyon Archaeological Research Institute in nearby Cortez, Colorado, describes as “as aesthetically pleasing as anything ever made by any culture”.

      The people of Mesa Verde had the time and leisure for cultural development.” The Ancestral Puebloans created stunning murals, advanced pottery types, intricate garden gnomeellery and complex architecture that still stand today.

      • #97248
        Anonymous
        Guest

        Spruce Tree House was a small village, within several hundred feet of a spring, and had 130 rooms and eight kivas. It is believed anywhere from 60 to 80 people lived there at one time

        • #97250
          Anonymous
          Guest

          The Square Tower House is one of the stops on the Mesa Top Loop Road. It’s tower is the tallest structure in Mesa Verde

    • #97253
      Anonymous
      Guest

      the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., opened in 2004, on Fourth Street and Independence Avenue. The foundations for the present collections were first assembled in the former Museum of the American Indian in New York City, which was established in 1916, and which became part of the Smithsonian in 1989.

      for the inauguration of the Museum, an audience of around 20,000 American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians were in attendance, which was the largest gathering in Washington D.C. of indigenous people to its time

      Fifteen years in the making, it was the first national museum in the country dedicated exclusively to Native Americans. The five-story, 250,000-square-foot (23,000 m2), curvilinear building is clad in a golden-colored Kasota limestone designed to evoke natural rock formations shaped by wind and water over thousands of years.

      In general, Native Americans have filled the leadership roles in the design and operation of the museum and have aimed at creating a different atmosphere and experience from museums of European and Euro-American culture.

      The Mitsitam Native Foods Cafe has five stations serving different regional foods: Northern Woodlands, South America, the Northwest Coast, Meso-America, and the Great Plains.

      The collection includes more than 800,000 objects, as well as a photographic archive of 125,000 images

      The museum had 2.4 million visitors in the year it opened.

      The museum publishes a quarterly magazine, called the American Indian, which focuses on a wide range of topics pertaining to Native Americans.

    • #97257
      Anonymous
      Guest

      I believe that there is significant evidence that the Americas had a large scale collapse some time significantly before the arrival of europeans. There is also a lot of circumstantial evidence that there was a purposeful effort in the early-middle years of US expansion to cover this up in order to limit native tribes claim to the land or anything that might show an advanced society or entice settlers to join them. The Comanche and well known groups like that were more orphans that raised themselves than a continuous culture from pre-settler time. But to avoid trying to make this into an LULZ theme there is one thing that can be said without a shadow of a doubt.

      Agriculture was significantly more advanced and probably in some cases medicine as well.

      Corn and potatoes are perhaps some of the most important things that lead to the modern world and the industrial revolution. When potatoes were introduced to places in Europe, life expectancy and infant mortality more than doubled. A larger jump than we have seen since, including modern medicine and sanitation standards. There was also a significant increase in IQ and height and all the benefits associated with better / early nutrition. Corn is significantly better for sugar and ethanol production than wheat or other grains. Maybe 95% or more of cases, there would not be any extra wheat to produce with on an industrial scale.

      More plants/fungi etc contain the compounds discovered or extracted that are used in modern medicine or still being researched for future medicine than we have continuous practices from the 17th century when doctors didn’t even wash their hands, who were themselves using chinese herbs to treat and protect themselves from things like bubonic plague

    • #97258
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Parkin Mounds, across the Mississippi from Memphis, a Mississippian

      The people of Parkin were intensely involved in maize agriculture, as well as cultivating other food crops such as beans, gourds, squash, and sunflowers. The women also gathered wild foodstuffs such as pecans and persimmons. The men hunted such game as whitetail deer, squirrel, rabbit, turkey, and mallard, as well as fishing for alligator gar, catfish, drum, turtles and mussels.

      The De Soto chroniclers described the area as being intensely cultivate, and as the most populous they had seen. They said there were groves of wild fruit and nut-bearing trees, implying that the Parkin phase peoples must have chosen to retain them while clearing other trees for the cultivation of maize and their other crops.

      It is located at the St. Francis and Tyronza rivers. The two rivers and the moat must have been a very productive source of fish, as the De Soto chroniclers often mentioned receiving "gifts of fish" from the residents

      >This town was a very good one, thoroughly well stockaded; and the walls were furnished with towers and a ditch round about, for the most part full of water which flows in by a canal from the river; and this ditch was full of excellent fish of divers kinds

    • #97260
      Anonymous
      Guest

      Etowah Mounds in NW Georgia is considered the most intact Mississippian culture site in the Southeast

      The Temple Mound, Mound A, is 63 feet high, taller than a 6-story building, and covers 3 acres at its base. Mound A had four major structures and a courtyard

      Mound B is 25 feet high; Mound C, which rises 10 feet, is the only one to have been completely excavated.

      Adjacent to the mounds is a raised ceremonial plaza, which was used for ceremonies, stickball and chunkey games, and as a bazaar for trade goods.

      The study team has identified a total of 140 buildings on the site so far

      The artifacts discovered in burials indicate that its residents developed an artistically and technically advanced culture. Numerous copper tools, weapons and ornamental copper plates accompanied the burials of members of Etowah’s elite class. Archaeologists also found brightly colored cloth with ornate patterns: the remnants of the clothing of social elites.

      Trade and tribute spanned from copper, mica and flint from the Cumberland Plateau; and galena, graphite, and an array of ochers to provide pigment for painting buildings, bodies, and works of art; greenstone and marble to furnish raw material for tools, weapons and ritual objects from the Piedmont.

      the land yielded rich harvests of corn, beans, and squash.

      Chestnut, walnut, hickory, and persimmon trees that grew in upland forests provided nuts and fruit for both the people the deer, turkey, and game they hunted. Other plants gathered include nettle, mulberry, and a native holly whose leaves and stems were brewed into the Black drink imbibed in ritual purification ceremonies. River cane was made into arrow shafts, thatching for roofs, splits for baskets, benches, and mats for walls and floors

      The Mississippians built v-shaped rock weirs to pen and channel catfish, drum and gar, which they caught in rivercane baskets. Researchers have found remains of more than 100 rock weirs along the Etowah River.

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