An abyss was irremediably opened at the dawn of the West with the philosophy of Socrates and later with the Platonic myth of the cave, the myth of a new Being for Western Indo-Europeans. Plato constructed an analogy where the life of man on earth was equivalent to living inside a cave. The inhabitants of the interior of the Platonic cave perceived shadows projected onto the inner wall by outer beings. Among these shadows the cavern dwellers built their own idea of reality. In this analogy, the natural world, corresponding to the interior of the cavern, was only a poor imitation of the real world, outside the cave, representing transcendent and perennial ideas, the real essence of those illusory shadows.
With this myth, man’s essence was no longer associated with nature and was pushed up towards a transcendental plane. This was the birth of metaphysical dualism. The Ideal emerged in that moment as a new truth, outside of nature. In this myth, man and the world became only illusory shadows of something real. The father of all things was thought of from that moment on as a trans-mundane entity, perfect, without error or defeat. The essence of beings became an ideal, an eternal and moral archetype, good and perfect in itself. Metaphysical essence was thought immobile, unchangeable, incapable of fighting, a conservative entity that was largely unattainable, as well as transcendent, alien and improper to man.